By A. F. Conradi, Clemaon College, 8. C.
Triple-leafed Barberry. (Berberis trifoliata Moric.) On gravelly hills from the Gulf coast to the Limpia mountains. Yields honey abundantly, also pollen. Blooms January and February and is important for early brood rearing
Prickly Poppy. (Argemone platyccrvs Link and Otto.) Abundant along roadsides, in waste fields and on prairies. Honey yield unimportant, but yields abundant pollen during dearth of summer. In the Brazos River Valley bees work heavily on it during June. The orange-colored pollen is carried to the hive, making the combs look disagreeable. May to July.
Poppy. (Papavcr rhaeas L.) Honey yield unimportant owing to scarcity of plants. May.
Pepper wort. Pepper grass. (Lepidium virginicum L.) ‘Widely distributed. Yields small quantities of honey and pollen.
Greggia. (Greggia comparum Gray.) Confined largely to west Texas. Blooms near San Antonio in February. Yields some honey, but pollen is important for early brood rearing.
Turnip. (Brassica rapa L.) Yields honey and pollen.
Black mustard. (Brassica nigra (L.) Loch.) Scatteringly throughout Texas. Bees work on it busily, but its status as a bee forage plant has not been determined. June and July.
Port viae a grandiflora Hook. Grown in experimental plats at College Station. Honey yield good owing to the extended blooming period from June till frost. Pollen is highly colored.
Salt cedar. (Tamarix gallka L.) Common in the Gulf coast country. Several trees cultivated at College Station bloom from May to June.
Fringed Poppy-mallow. (Callirhoc digit at a Nutt.) A common plant yielding honey and pollen in small quantities. An excellent pollen plant at College Station.
Spanish Apple. (Malvaviscus drummondii Torr. and Gray.) Common along the Comal and Guadalupe rivers near New Braunfels. Bees visit it, but in that section is not an important honey plant.
Shrubby althea. (Hibiscus syriacus L.) An ornamental plant in parks and gardens. Bees work busily on it, but the plants are few. Yields honey and pollen; blooms from May and June to fall.
Sida spinosa L. A common plant blooming during the summer. Honey and pollen yield light, but valuable during dearth.
Sida angustifolia Lam. In dry soils throughout southern Texas blooming from spring to fall. Yields honey and pollen.
Cotton. (Gossypium herbaeeum L.) Yielding a strong steady flow of white honey during the entire blooming period from June to frost. The main source of honey throughout the cotton section. The honey is furnished by nectar glands of leaves, bracts, blossoms and bolls.
American linden. (Tilia americana L.) Occurs sparingly throughout Texas as far west as San Antonio. A heavy yielder of fine honey.
Large-flowered caltrop. (Tribulus cistoides L.) Mr. L. Scholl reports this plant from Hunter as a good honey and pollen yielder, but flowers close at noon. April to August.
Greater Caltrop. (Kallstroemia maxima (L.) T. and G.) Common throughout southern and western Texas; a good honey and pollen plant in time of dearth.
Yellow wood sorrel. (Oxalis stricta L.) In open woodlands throughout Texas, blooming during summer, but not abundant enough to be important bee forage.
Prickly ash. (Xanthoxylon clava-hercules L.) Known as toothache tree and sea-ash. A common shrub in woodland prairies, blooming April 15 to June. A good honey and pollen plant.
Hop tree. (Ptelia trifoliata L.) In low woodlands throughout southern and western Texas. Where abundant the plant is a good honey yielder during favorable seasons. May to July.
Hardy orange. (Citrus trifoliata L.) Until recently this plant has been scarce in Texas, having been planted principally for hedges. With the development of the citrus industry the demand for hardy deciduous stock to enable the commercial orange tree to withstand a lower temperature has caused a rapid increase of this species. It blooms March 15 to 25; during this time bees work on it busily, obtaining a fair quantity of honey for early brood rearing.
Tree of Heaven. (Ailanthus glandulosa Desf.) This is recorded from Hunter as follows: Cultivated for shade. Honey yield fair in good seasons, also pollen. There are also nectar glands on leaf blades. April.
Umbrella china tree. (Melia azedarach L.) A common shade tree in central and southern Texas. It yields honey which helps early brood rearing in February and March.
Possum Haw. (Ilex decidua Walt.) Also known as Youpon and Bearberry. Lowlands in southern and central Texas west to the semiarid country. Blooms between March and May. Valuable for early brood rearing.
Youpon. (Ilex earoliniana Trelease.) Southern Texas westward to San Antonio. March and April, helping early brood.
Brazil wood, Log wood. (Condalia arborata Hook.) Central and western Texas. A good honey plant at College Station; some pollen. July and August.
Colubrina texensis Gray. On dry soils from the Colorado River west and south. Honey yield good; some pollen. Plants too scarce for surplus. April.
Rattan vine. (Berchemia scandens Trelease.) Along ravines and in lowlands; blooms April 15 to 25, giving a good surplus in favorable seasons, but the honey is dark amber.
Common grape vines. Good for pollen. April.
Mountain grape. (Vitis monticola Buckley.) Hilly limestone regions of western Texas. Honey yield fair: pollen valuable for early brood rearing. March.
Cow itch. (Cissus incisa Desmoid.) On uncultivated ground from the Colorado River westward. April to August, yielding surplus where plentiful.
Soap berry, Wild china. (Sapindus marginatus Willd.) Creek bottoms throughout southern and western Texas. An evergreen shrub, blooming in April and May. yielding heavy surplus where the plants are abundant.
Balloon vine. (Cardiospermum halicacabum L.) Throughout central, southern and western Texas. Honey yield good, but plants are scarce.
Mexican buckeye. (Vngnadia speciosa Endl.) In mountainous woodlands and on rocky hillsides throughout southern, central and western Texas. Honey yield important as it blooms during July dearth, but the plants are not plentiful.
Green Sumach. (Rhus viviens Lindh.) In rocky country west of Colorado River. Bees work on it during dearth. Blooms as late as October.
Rhus sp. A small shrubby tree on rocky hillsides and on woodland prairies. Bee-keepers report it a good honey plant, giving surplus in favorable seasons, depending upon rains. August.
Blue bonnet. (Lupinus subcarnosus Hook.) Southern, central and western Texas on prairies and on open woodlands. The honey and pollen yield is good; the pollen is of a bright orange color. March and April.
Red clover. (Trifolium pratense L.) An attempt was made to grow red clover with a view of determining the ability of the five races of bees to secure honey, notwithstanding the deep corollas. We have no evidence that any of the strains of bees are able to obtain honey, w7hile the plants did not prosper owing to the dry climate.
Alfalfa. (Medicago saliva L.) Is extensively cultivated for hay in humid and semi-arid Texas. We know that it is a valuable honey plant in irrigated sections of Colorado and New Mexico, but there is considerable difference of opinion as to its value in unirrigated sections of Texas. In the great honey belt of southwest Texas it appears to be no preferred plant. We have a note on record from Mr. E. Scholl, formerly assistant to the writer, when State Entomologist of Texas, which states that large numbers of bees were seen on alfalfa at New Braunfels during June, 1907. During his work as deputy foul brood inspector he reports alfalfa “a good thing” in north Texas. In the Brazos River bottom where bees were near alfalfa we were unable to ascertain the importance of alfalfa as a honey plant because bees preferred other blossoms occurring during alfalfa bloom. Where bees work on it, the honey yield is fair during early summer and fall. On July 12 Mr. Will Atchley, one of the most successful apiculturists of Texas, presented the writer with a jar of alfalfa honey from Beeville, the quality of which was fully equal to the Colorado product.
Medick. Burr clover. (Medicago denticulata Willd.) Abundant at College Station during spring. While it yields honey sparingly during early summer, it comes into bloom at a time when honey flora is scarce, and when bees must depend on honey gathered from miscellaneous sources. It disappears with the approach of hot weather and the advance of Bermuda grass.
White sweet clover. (Melilotus alba Seso.) Sparingly scattered along railroad tracks and in waste places. It is a good yielder of a fine quality of honey. The plants cultivated in the experimental plats at the A. & M. apiary are doing well each season. Seeds scattered broadcast in waste grounds germinated well, but the young plants were seriously handicapped by the ever-present and persistent Bermuda grass. -Mr. C. S. Phillips of Waco, Texas, stated to the writer that sweet clover sown by him along the H. & T. C. Railroad near Waco appeared to hold its own. The plants bloom from June to fall. Owing to its honey yield white sweet clover should be sown for honey producing purposes. It grows in soils containing lime and although cattle treat it with skepticism when first introduced to it, owing to the characteristic odor, they soon learn to eat it. In cultivated land and where Bermuda grass is absent the plant prospers. No doubt every bee-keeper could utilize it to supplement the honey flow during a season of dearth. The writer has observed this plant in several latitudes between the Rio Grande River and northern New England where “bees roared on it.”
Yellow sweet clover. (Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam). Occurs sparingly, escaped. Bee-men contend that yellow sweet clover is earlier and superior to white sweet clover. It should be cultivated on waste lands and the poorer soils. May to fall.
Eysenhardtia. (Eysenhardtia amorphoides H. B. K.) Also known as rock brush. On light soils of woodlands and open prairies throughout southern and western Texas. Yields abundant honey of a fine quality. March to May after heavy rains.
Black locust. (Robinia pseudacacia L.) Cultivated occasionally on lawns. During March and April the bees work on it abundantly, obtaining a fair quantity of honey, provided the weather is not too cold.
Mexican ground plum. (Astragalus americanus A. D. C.) Open prairies of Texas, yielding honey abundantly, principally during June. It is injured by drouth.
White clover. (Trifolium repens L.) Sparingly on roadsides and lawns. It is well known as one of the main sources in states north of Texas. Several attempts to grow it at College Station proved failures owing to dry climate.
Cow pea. (Vigna sp.) Cultivated for forage and soil improvement. July and August. Yields a good quantity of light-colored honey of fair quality. It is one of the plants utilized at the experimental apiary for bridging the bees from spring flora to horse mint and cotton, but the repeated cold waves during the spring of 1907 severely handicapped its honey yielding power.
Neptunia. (Neptunia lutea Benth.) Sparingly, eastern and southern Texas along the Rio Grande as far north as Laredo. Pollen during May.
Red bud, Judas tree. (Cercis canadensis L.) Our only honeyproducing records are from Comal County, where it blooms from March 1 to April 15. Good honey plant, helping early brood
Sensitive briar. (Schrankia angustata Torr. and Gray.) Open prairies west of San Antonio. Honey yield not important owing to the scarcity of the plant, yielding pollen. April to September.
Cassia. (Cassia longifolia Car.) In damp sandy places; visited frequently by bees.
Mesquite, Screw bean. (Prosopis juliflora D. C.) Widely distributed in southern and western Texas. While occurring sparingly everywhere in Texas, the mesquite belt proper extends from the Rio Grande River north to the northern tier of counties of the Pan Handle, between 98 and 101 meridians, and along the valleys of the Rio Grande, Pecos and Canadian rivers. Main source in State. Honey light colored. April and again in June.
Honey locust. (Gleditchia triacanthos L.) Sparingly wild and in cultivation. Heavy yielder at College Station, but bloom extends from April 15 to 25 only.
Garden pea. (Pisum sativum L.) Yields some honey and pollen.
Retama. (Parkinsonia aculeata L.) Low sandy soils, southern and western Texas. May to September. Valuable in dearth.
Albizzia. (Albizzia julibrissin Durazz.) On campus, College Station; honey yield fair. May to July. Long stamens handicap bees.
Huajilla, “Wahea.” (Acacia berlandierei Benth.) Solid masses on dry and rocky hills from the Nueces to the Rio Grande and Devils rivers; at its best in Uvalde and adjoining counties. Heavy honey yielder; best honey in State and main surplus in southwest Texas.
Cat claw. (Acacia gregii Gray.) Also known as devil’s claw and Paradise flower. On dry, rocky soil throughout southwest Texas. One of the main yielders of fine honey. April and again in June.
Texas cat claw. (Acacia wrightii Benth.) Throughout southwest Texas; one of the main yielders of fine honey. April.
Round-flowered cat claw. (Acacia roemeriana Schlecht.) Widely distributed over southwest Texas, yielding a heavy flow of fine honey during April and May. Less abundant than preceding species.
Acacia. (Acacia amentaceae D. C.) Abundant throughout southwest Texas on prairies. Not very important for honey, but an excellent pollen plant in early summer when bee forage is scarce.
Huisaehe. (Acacia farnesiana Willd.) Abundant from San Antonio southward throughout the Gulf coast country. A good honey yielder and excellent for stimulating early brood. Yields pollen. February, March and April.
Plum. (Prunus domestica L.) Honey yield good. Valuable for early brood. February to March.
Wild plum. (Prunus cerasus L.) Abundant in waste places throughout the humid sections. February to March. Valuable for early brood.
Bridal wreath. (Spircea virginiana Britt.) Ornamental shrub; helps early brood.
Dewberry. (Rubus trivialis Mx.) Wild low bush blackberry. Yields honey and pollen in April. Widely distributed.
Hawthorne, White thorn. (Crataegus arborescens Ell.) Moist ground southern and western Texas west to Colorado River. Good honey and pollen plant. April.
Rose. Blooms throughout season. Good for pollen.
Apple. (Malus malus (L.) Britt.) Scarce. Yields honey March 15 to April 10. Helps early brood.
Peach. (Amygdalis persica L.) Widely cultivated. Valuable in building up colonies in spring. February to April.
Evening primrose. (Jussiaea diffusa Forskl.) Wet places eastern and central Texas. June to middle of August, and where abundant it is very important during drought.
Gaura filiformis Small. Sandy soils of central Texas, yielding surplus in seasons of sufficient rain.
Musk melon. (Cucumis melo L.) Widely cultivated. Good honey and pollen plant. Early summer to fall.
Prickly pear. (Opuntia engelmannii Salm. and Dyek.) Common, southwestern Texas. Heavy honey yielder. sometimes giving surplus. Bee-keepers report that when honey is first stored it is of a rank flavor. May to June.
Dogwood. (Cornus asperifolia Mx.) Sparingly in low lands, eastern and central Texas. Favorite with bees and honey yield good, but not very heavy. March to April.
Elder. (Sambucus canadensis Linn.) Sparingly in moist places throughout Texas; a good honey plant. April and May.
Coral berry. (Symphoricarpas symphoricarpos L.) Along wooded streams near College Station. Blooms July to September and is a good honey plant.
Cucumber. (Cucumis sativus L.) Cultivated. Good honey plant, but scarce and of short duration.
Pumpkin. (Cucumis pepo L.) A better pollen than honey plant. May to June.
Watermelon. (Citrullus citrullus (L.) Karst.) A good honey and pollen plant; at its best on dewy mornings. Blooming period extends over the greater portion of the summer until frost.
Wild gourd. (Cucurbita foetidissima H. B. K.) Scatteringly, southern and western Texas. Honey flow light; better for pollen. April to July.
Black haw. (Viburnum rufotomentosum Small.) Woodlands of central and western Texas. Good honey yielder early in season and valuable for early brood.
Bush honeysuckle. (Lonicera fragrantissima Lindel.) A small bush cultivated on the campus at College Station. Earliest honey yielder of the locality, furnishing honey as early as January. Valuable for early brood in mild winters.
White-flowered honeysuckle. (Lonicera albiflora.) Recorded from Hunter, Texas, blooming from May to July. A good honey plant but scarce.
Houstonia angustifolia Mx. Dry soils throughout Texas. May to July. Bees work well on it, but plants are scarce.
Button weed. (Diodia teres Walt.) Low sandy soils of Texas. Not a heavy yielder, but important in July and August where horsemint and cotton is not heavy.
Button bush. (Cephalanthus occidentalis L.) In moist soils throughout Texas. Bees work on it during July.
Goldenrod. (Solidago spp.) Throughout Texas. Abundant in late fall, but unimportant where broom and bitter weed is abundant.
Roman wormwood. (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) Common on dry uplands, yielding pollen.
Tall ragweed. (Ambrosia aptera D. C.) Low soils throughout southern and western Texas. July and August, yielding adhesive pollen.
Great ragweed. (Ambrosia trifida L.) Moist land, central and eastern Texas. July and August. Good for pollen.
Cockle burr. (Xanthium canadense Mill.) Common in river bottoms, yielding pollen in September and October.
Common sunflower. (Helianthus annuus L.) Common in waste fields. Good honey yield, but strong flavored. Yields propolis.
Sneeze weed. Bitter weed. (Helenium tenuifolium Nutt.) Common in open waste places of eastern and central Texas. Yields honey and pollen. The honey is bitter as quinine, but owing to its longcontinued blooming period from June to frost, it is an important plant for winter stores.
Marigold. (Gaillardiu pulchella Fang.) Common throughout Texas. Yields surplus. Honey dark amber. May to June.
Dandelion. (Taraxicum officinale Weber.) Common. Yields some honey of strong flavor.
Blue thistle. (Cnicus altissimus Willd.) West to Guadalupe River. July and August. Bees work on it heavily at times.
Parthenium. (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) In waste places throughout Texas. April till frost, yielding honey and white pollen.
Broom weed. (Gutierrezia texana T. & G.) Open prairies throughout Texas. Honey dark and of strong flavor. Important for winter stores. September and October.
Texas persimmon. (Diospyros texana Schule.) Woodlands and ravines, southern and central Texas. Good honey yielder. April and June.
Common persimmon. (Diospyros virginiana L.) West to Colorado River. A good honey plant but scarce. Blooms a little earlier than D. texana.
Gum elastic. (Bumelia languinosa Pers.) Woodlands, eastern and southern Texas. Good honey plant, but blooming period short. June 25 to 30.
Privet. (Ligustrum vulgare L.) A good honey plant, but flowers scarce owing to annual trimming.
Milkweed. (Asclepias sp.) Good honey plant at Beeville, but pollen attaches to bee’s feet and cripples them.
Dense-flowered Phacelia. (Phacelia conjesta Hook.) Common, blooming April to June. Some honey. P. glabra yields some honey.
Borage. (Borage officinalis L.) Cultivated at College Station. A good honey plant in June. Stalks die during drouth, but revive and bloom again later in season.
Morning glory. (Ipomoea caroliniaita Prush.) Throughout eastern, central and southern Texas, blooming during summer, yielding a light flow of honey and pollen.
Night shade. (Solanum rostratvm Duval.) Yields some honey and pollen from May to October.
Trumpet creeper. (Campsis radicans L.) Humid sections of Texas. Honey yield light; pollen from external nectar glands and stems of flowers.
Fog fruit. (Lippia nodiflora L.) Honey yield light during July. White brush. (Lippia ligustrina Britt.) Abundant in southwest
Texas. Blooms May to September, yielding a heavy honey flow of fine quality.
French Mulberry. (Callicarpa americana L.) Abundant in rich soils of central and southern Texas, yielding honey.
Salvia. (Salvia roemeriana Sch.) Yields honey during summer in western Texas, but bees are handicapped by deep corollas.
Salvia azurea Lam. Throughout Texas, but corollas very deep. Visited by bumblebees. April to October.
Lantana. (Lantana camara L.) Yields some honey. April to October.
Virginia crownbeard. (Verbena virginica L.) In rich wooded lowlands of central, southern and western Texas. October. A heavy yielder of fine honey.
Blue vervain. (Verbena officinalis.) Throughout Texas. April to August, yielding a light honey flow through the season.
Catnip. (Nepeta cataria L.) Cultivated in the experimental plats at the apiary at College Station in 1904. The plants did not prosper; those that bloomed were visited by bees.
Wild bergamot. (Monarda fistulosa L.) Sparingly on dry soils of Texas. May to July. An excellent honey plant.
Horsemint. (Monarda clinopodioides Gray.) Waste lands of eastern and southern Texas. May 20 to June 20; an excellent honey plant, being one of the main yielders. the honey comparing favorably with that of basswood.
Horsemint. (Monarda punctata L.) Waste prairies, eastern and southern Texas. Abundant along railroad tracks; one of the main honey plants. May to July.
Common hoarhound. (Morrubium vulgare L.) Throughout the State; a good yielder of a dark amber-colored honey from February to mid-summer.
Drummond’s skullcap. (Scutellaria drummondii Benth.) Throughout Texas; a good honey yielder in April and May.
Common pigweed. (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) Throughout Texas. Yields some honey and pollen July to September.
Spiny amaranth. (Amaranthus spinosus L.) Bees visit it, obtaining a small amount of pollen. August.
Buckwheat. (Fagopyrwm fagopyrum (L.) Karst.) Cultivated. Our records are from College Station. Yields fair quantities of honey on dewy mornings, but is handicapped in dry atmosphere. We found it a very good plant to bridge dearths.
Mistletoe. (Phoradendron flavescens (Pursh) Nutt.) A parasitic plant, growing on oak, elm, hackberry, and mesquite. Blooms from December to February. A good honey and pollen plant.
Spurge. (Euphorbia marginata Pursh.) Low lands of western Texas, yielding honey during summer and fall.
Sonora eroton. (Croton sonorce Torr.) Observed in Llano and Comal counties. Although honey flow is light, it comes during the July and August dearths.
Goat weed. (Croton capitatus Mx.) Central and southern Texas. Not important in bee sections, but valuable where the honey flora is scarce. At College Station it is a good pollen plant during August.
Texas croton. (Croton texensis Muell.) Western Texas. A light honey yielder during summer from June to August.
One seeded croton. (Croton monanthogynus Michx.) Central and southern Texas. May to June. Honey yield fair.
Castor-oil plant. (Ricihus communis L.) Cultivated throughout State; sparingly escaped. Honey and pollen yield good. Nectar glands at base of leaf. March and April.
American elm. (Vlmus amcricana L.) Low woodlands of central Texas. Good honey and pollen plant, sometimes yielding surplus. The honey is amber and characteristically aromatic. August to September. Also known as “wahoo.” (
Granjena. (Celtis pallida Torr.) Bee-keepers report it an important plant. We have no other records.
Hackberry. (Celtis mississippievsis Bosc.) Common in central Texas. Fair honey yielder and good for pollen early in the season.
Hackberry. (Celtis occidentalis L.) Cultivated for shade throughout Texas. Occurs in ravine at College Station. Fair honey plant and good pollen yielder. Valuable for early brood.
Osage orange. (Toxylon pomiferum Buf.) Planted for hedges in humid sections. April. Yields honey but plants are scarce.
Hickory. (Hicoria alba L.) Common in sandy lowlands, yielding some honey and pollen in March.
Pecan. (Hicoria pecan Britt.) Cultivated and wild. Good for pollen. March.
Post oak. (Quercus minor Sarg.) Sandy soils, eastern and central Texas. Its quantities of pollen during March and April make it a valuable plant for early brood.
Black jack. Barren oak. (Quercus marylandica Muench.) In post oak woods. Yields pollen in early spring.
Live oak. (Quercus virginiana Mill.) Southern and western Texas. A good honey plant for early brood in March. Honey dark colored.
Red oak. (Quercus rubra L.) Westward to San Antonio. Yields pollen in March. Trees scarce.
Spanish oak. Pin oak. (Quercus palustris Duroi.) West to San Antonio. A good honey and pollen plant. Valuable for early brood.
Water oak. (Quercus aquatica Walt.) Moist soils, eastern and central Texas west as far as Austin. Pollen in early spring, but the plant occurs sparingly.
Black willow. (Salix nigra March.) Wet places. A good honey and pollen plant. Valuable for early brood. February to April.
Cotton wood. (Populus deltoides Marsh.) Low lands everywhere. Fair honey plant, but a better pollen yielder for early brood. March.
Cat briar. (Smilax bonu-nox L.) Everywhere. Grows in thickets, yielding honey, but bloom of short duration. April 10 to 25.
Virginia spiderwort. (Tradescantia gigantea Rose.) Scatteringly on prairies. Yields some pollen for early brood.
Sorghum. (Sorghum vulgare Pers.) Cultivated for forage and hay. Yields honey, but it is particularly valuable for the abundance of pollen during June.
Indian corn. (Zea mats L.) Valuable pollen plant from May to June.
Silver berry. (Elaeagnus argentia Pursh.) Cultivated for ornamental purposes at College Station. The honey from the nectar glands runs down the long corollas where the bees can get it. Blooms in spring and fall.
Sweet olive. (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.) One bush at College Station. Honey yield good. April.
Firmiana platinifolia (L.) R. Br. Ornamental at College Station. Heavy honey yielder from May 10 to June 15.
Crepe myrtle (Lagerstroemia indica L.) Cultivated. Blooms June to October, bees working heavily at intervals.
While, upon examining the list of honey plants, it will be noticed that the heavy yielders are few, one or more species occur in all parts of the State. Bee-keeping can be carried on only where the honey flow is continuous when the bees are active. The many minor plants here recorded are of great value in keeping colonies in good condition during the intervals between the surplus yielders. In sections where dearths occur they may be bridged by cultivated species, provided the conditions of the locality are known so that the work can be planned with approximate accuracy. A great field is open in Texas for the distribution of honey plants for the purpose of producing a continual honey flow in sections where the bee-keeping industry is at present handicapped by dearths. By close observation bee-keepers should soon learn what plants could be utilized for this purpose, employing either cultivated species or wild plants obtained from seed scattered in waste places.
By A. F. Conradi, Clemaon College, 8. C.